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Brian Dijkema: Hockey Canada has a culture problem—and Canada has a porn problem making it worse

Commentary

Canada’s hockey culture needs attention. Urgently. And, no, sensitivity training and a few rule changes won’t fix anything.

This cultural problem deserves an intervention.

That intervention begins by paying attention to how hockey culture exists within the broader culture surrounding masculinity, sex, and community. A prime example of the problem is in the horrid details of the alleged group sexual assault of a woman by five players from Canada’s 2018 junior men’s hockey team. Where would anyone learn such behaviour? Where would any young man learn to hit, spit, verbally abuse, and gang rape? 

The answer: pornography.

Uncomfortable as it is, no real change will come to Canadian hockey culture, without considering the tacit cultural acceptance of what’s considered sexual entertainment.  

Louise Perry, in her book The Case Against the Sexual Revolution, quoting Mary Wollstonecraft, says: “the little respect paid to chastity in the male world is, I am persuaded, the grand source of many of the physical and moral evils that torment mankind, as well as the vices that degrade and destroy women.” Indeed, the allegations against five Canadian hockey players appear to be a case study in the accuracy of Wollstonecraft. 

As Perry and other recent writers like Christine Emba have noted, sex is at once highly personal, but also profoundly shaped by cultural assumptions about what is normal that in turn shape that personal behaviour. And today, increasingly, these assumptions are shaped by pornography. Yet broader Canadian culture seems to consider the use of pornography as just another consumable good. We are, generally, unwilling to recognize that pornography shapes people’s views of sex—and its practice—in ways that particularly demean women and diminish healthy masculinity. And while some might have legitimate concerns about how the state involves itself in this matter, that shouldn’t prevent us from having a cultural discussion, as fellow citizens, about it.

Almost everyone is content to say, in the Hockey Canada case, that the sexual assault of the woman identified in court as E.M. is wrong. However, most of us seem unwilling to say that watching such behaviour in the privacy of our screens is wrong. Sadly, that would mean it’s not just hockey culture that’s afraid to speak up against something that might be deemed a bit weird. Blaming Hockey Canada’s incentive structures and lack of accountability is good, but it’s only part of the picture.  

Any attempt to reform Hockey Canada’s culture needs to pay attention not only to the incentive structures that create the conditions under which this abuse occurs but also to the nature of the abuse itself. What both of these matters share is the nature of the communities and assumptions that shape what it means to be a person, and in the case of Canada’s men’s team, what it means to be a man. 

Let’s start with the hockey culture. Sensitivity training is not going to fix Hockey Canada and anyone who says so, or who thinks a few rule changes are going to solve it, is lying to you. 

There are some deeply rooted challenges facing hockey culture that won’t be solved by more rules. 

Junior hockey removes young men from their homes, families, and communities and places them into a high-intensity, highly mobile environment that values discipline—but primarily discipline related to on-ice performance. The normal accountability structures for off-ice behaviour—parents, godparents, family friends, etc.— just aren’t there. And this is true even though the families that billet these young men often care a great deal for them and act as surrogates. What’s more, there are a host of hangers-on—agents looking to gain clients, potential sponsors, team officials looking to ensure their guys are “taken care of”—that often (not always) act in ways that encourage the bad behaviour. 

High-level junior hockey means the majority of your week is spent on the ice and with your team. This makes those young men extremely reliant on the goodwill of coaches, team officials, and older players who have a disproportionate influence on their playing careers—and the potential of big money and fame—in their hands. Hockey is also a sport that requires high team alignment to succeed, and it’s the rare player who benefits from being all that different from his teammates. Just go to a hockey rink on any given Saturday and observe the haircuts. But “go with the flow” doesn’t just refer to the hair. It is the mentality of anyone who wants to keep his head down and just let his play on the ice do the talking. 

The challenge is that all of this creates a culture where those who might see or sense that something is wrong don’t have great incentives to stick out their necks and speak out when the players are the ones perpetrating the abuse. It also sets the stage for potential abuse of the players themselves, as the tragic stories of Theoren Fleury and Sheldon Kennedy show. There has been a long trail of broken lives left by sexual abuse in hockey, and the young woman who is at the centre of this case is rare only in her courage and perseverance. I admire and honour her fortitude, and I hope she inspires others who suffer abuse to come forward and for the authorities to take these matters seriously. 

London Police Chief Thai Truong speaks during a press conference in London, Ontario on Monday, February 5, 2024. Nearly six years after a woman alleged she had been sexually assaulted by five then-members of Canada’s world junior hockey team, the police chief offered an apology for how long it had taken for charges to be laid in the case. Geoff Robins/The Canadian Press.

Hockey Canada needs to pay attention not just to the money, nor even to the old-man network that still holds so much sway over players. It needs to examine the nature of the community in which hockey takes place, but also real, gender-specific models of behaviour that we provide to young men. 

So while I’m all for altering our junior hockey systems to tie them much more closely to communities of accountability, I think we all need to take a moment to consider that there are things beyond Hockey Canada—things that many people are unwilling to think of as needing reform—that contribute to the abuse we see in this horrible case. 

One of them is the ubiquitous access to porn and a tacit—if not outright—condoning of its presence in young men’s lives. 

I know that will sound like Puritanism to many readers, but again, ask yourself: where did those young men learn to behave the way they are alleged to have behaved? Do we imagine that the widespread normality of deviant sexual behaviour that is present on sites that Canada allows to continue without concern has no effect on young men? 

If we think that the culture of Hockey Canada contributed to this horrible situation—and most of us do—we should probably apply the same lens to our culture’s comfort with things that are shaping what young men think is appropriate for sex. 

And, just as there’s a case to be made against the culture of Hockey Canada, we might want to consider that there’s a case to be made against some of our assumptions of normal when it comes to sex. That might be a good first step in moving away from vices that degrade and destroy women toward virtues that make not just better hockey players but better men. 

The Weekly Wrap: Poilievre proves he’s more than a live-and-let-live libertarian

Commentary

This week‘s edition of The Hub’s Weekly Wrap reflects on three of the past week’s biggest stories, including Pierre Poilievre’s support for age verification to access pornography, the Conservatives’ youth movement, and the American Right’s continued descent into a cult of personality.

Debates over access to porn dominate Ottawa

Pornography was at the centre of Canadian politics this week. Conservative leader Pierre Poilievre surprised some political observers by signaling support for legislation that would require age verification for Canadians to access online porn. 

Although he didn’t provide much detail about how such a law might ultimately be implemented, Poilievre’s endorsement in principle represents a notable divergence from the libertarian politics with which he’s become associated. It reflects a more nuanced worldview than we’ve typically seen from him, and is an implicit recognition of Stephen Harper’s axiom that “Conservatives have to be more than modern liberals in a hurry.” 

What Harper was conveying in his influential 2003 Civitas address, and what Poilievre’s surprise announcement on online pornography signals, is that in today’s political context it isn’t sufficient for conservatives to merely confront progressivism’s economic agenda. They must also be prepared to challenge the excesses of its sociocultural agenda too. As Harper put it: 

On a wide range of public-policy questions, including foreign affairs and defence, criminal justice and corrections, family and childcare, and healthcare and social services, social values are increasingly the really big issues.

Canadian conservatism, in other words, must strive for a synthesis between liberal ideals of individual autonomy and freedom and traditional understandings of social norms and values. Jason Kenney, Stephen Harper, and others have referred to this intellectual and political tradition as “ordered liberty.” 

The subject of online pornography for minors is arguably a prime one for conservatives’ conception of order to trump their commitment to freedom. The negative effects of ubiquitous porn in general and for young people in particular are quite overwhelming. Evidence tells us that the harms extend from individuals to social relationships and ultimately society as a whole. There’s certainly a conceptual case therefore that individual freedoms related to accessing pornography—particularly for minors—ought to be curtailed in the name of the social good. 

The details of course matter. There will be an onus on Poilievre at some point to outline how the goal of age verification would be effectuated. A current Senate bill that’s supposed to be taken up in the House of Commons is vague on how it should be implemented and who is ultimately responsible for overseeing it. But even if these are complex questions, they’re presumably not intractable. The British government is currently working on them as part of the coming into force of its own legislation. There are doubtless lessons to learn from its imperfect experience

But for now, Poilievre’s announcement is as important for its symbolism as its substance. It signals that he’s not merely a live-and-let-live libertarian. His worldview is instead more textured than his rhetoric sometimes reveals. It makes one wonder in what other instances we may see him diverge from a strict libertarian position in pursuit of the “balance” that Harper envisioned more than 20 years ago.

In the meantime, it’s worth acknowledging the key role that Hub contributor Ginny Roth has played in building a first-principles and policy-based case in favour of the position that Poilievre articulated this week. She’s been a consistent voice at The Hub for what she describes as a “conservative feminism”, including an August 2023 column that advanced the case for “age-gating” online pornography, and deserves a lot of credit for contributing to the intellectual conditions that led to Poilievre’s surprising announcement. It’s a valuable reminder of the power of ideas in politics. 

The Millennial influence on the Conservative Party is only growing

This week, the Canadian Club Toronto hosted a much-anticipated panel discussion with Millennial Conservative MPs Adam Chambers, Melissa Lantsman, and Shuvaloy Majumdar as well as prospective candidate Sabrina Maddeaux. The sold-out event was ably moderated by Hub contributor Ginny Roth. 

Although its general theme was the state of Canadian Conservative politics, the conversation’s underlying idea was the generational change represented by the participants themselves. They personify the growing influence of Millennial Conservatives (and conservatives) in our politics. It’s fitting that the event was held on the same day that Statistics Canada reported that Millennials have overtaken Baby Boomers as the country’s large demographic group. 

Canadian Conservatism (and conservatism) is increasingly a microcosm of this demographic shift in the broader society. Yet, as I’ve previously written, its major generational transformation has gone largely underreported by the mainstream media. The political consequences are nevertheless bound to be significant. 

The Parliament of Canada’s website makes it somewhat challenging to conduct an apples-to-apples comparison of the age distribution of the different parliamentary caucuses. But a cursory review of the Conservative shadow cabinet and the Trudeau government’s own cabinet (as well as the caucuses overall) is suggestive that the Conservatives are on balance younger than the Liberals. Pierre Poilievre for instance is roughly eight years younger than Justin Trudeau. Chambers and Lantsman (who are both members of the Conservative shadow cabinet) are between 15 and 17 years younger than their Liberal counterparts. 

These generational differences were on display at the Canadian Club event. The discussion covered a set of issues that wouldn’t have necessarily animated previous gatherings of conservatives. One example: There was a unique focus on fertility rates, family formation, and the role of government policy to improve the conditions for families to flourish. 

It’s not that previous generations of Conservatives (and conservatives) were indifferent to these questions. But rather their attention and focus were mostly dedicated to the issues that had been part of their own formative political experiences. As a result, the centre of gravity for a lot of Conservative (and conservative) Baby Boomers was the economic stagnation and fiscal crisis of the 1980s and 1990s. They came of age litigating debates about taxes, spending, and the size of government in the economy. 

While these issues still matter to Millennial Conservatives (and conservatives), they’ve since been superseded by a new set of concerns that sit at the nexus of the so-called “success sequence.” The promise of educational returns, marriage, home ownership, and family formation has been fundamentally disrupted in the modern era and, in turn, led to a reorientation of conservative priorities.

Consider the following: a previous study by the Cardus Institute has found that more than half of Canadians in working-class jobs are now over-credentialized. Mortgage eligibility in the City of Toronto is increasingly limited to those with household incomes in the top ten percent. The average age of first-time mothers has increased to 31.6 years old. And research from last year tells us that Canadian women are having fewer children than they tell pollsters they want. 

These unique challenges facing younger Canadians require a voice and, as this week’s Canadian Club event demonstrates, it’s Conservatives (and conservatives) who are disproportionately giving them expression. And so far they’re being rewarded for it. The Conservative Party now outperforms the Liberals with the 18-39 age demographic which makes it an outlier among centre-right parties across the Anglosphere. 

It prompts the question: will the next election be the first in which Millennials assert their new generational power over our politics? 

Former President Donald Trump speaks at the Conservative Political Action Conference Feb. 28, 2021, in Orlando, Fla. John Raoux/AP Photo.
Trump’s complete and total takeover of American conservatism

American conservatives are gathered in Washington this week for the annual Conservative Political Action Conference. CPAC, which was first launched in 1974 with a keynote speech by future President Ronald Reagan, is one of the highest-profile events on the conservative calendar. Thousands of grassroots attendees come each year to hear speeches from leading right-wing activists and politicians. 

CPAC’s evolution over the past several years is a metaphor for broader trends in American conservatism. It’s a long way from Reagan’s inaugural address to this year’s Reagan dinner speaker Vivek Ramaswamy. 

I attended CPAC a few times in the early 2000s. My friends and I went to hear leading political figures like George W. Bush and Paul Ryan as well as intellectuals like Charles Krauthammer and George Will. 

The conference was a bit edgy and quirky. Ron Paul regularly won the presidential straw poll, which of course was unrepresentative of his broader political support. But the overall vibe was solidly mainstream.

In the Trump years, though, CPAC has become an expression of the former president’s takeover of American conservatism. The ideas and values that used to underpin the conference (often characterized on bumper stickers or t-shirts by phrases like “faith, freedom, and free enterprise”) have been subordinated to accommodate Trump’s ideological incoherence. A former head of the American Conservative Union, which organizes and hosts the conference, recently said that “I don’t recognize it anymore. It all gravitates around Donald Trump.”

The list of this year’s speakers—including Lara Trump, Steve Bannon, and My Pillow founder Mike Lindell—reinforces his point. The conference, which used to be a platform for intra-debate among conservatives, is now carefully configured around Trump’s ego and political impulses. It’s become a cult of personality. The former president who headlines the program on Saturday has seemingly reshaped the movement that Reagan used to personify.

It’s interesting to think about the direction of causality here. Did Trump channel or change American conservatism? If it’s the former, what’s behind the change between the CPACs that I attended and this year’s conference? Is it mostly explained by a counter-radicalization to excesses on the Left or is something else going on? If it’s the latter, are people primarily motivated by affective polarization or have they actually changed their views to align them with Trump? However one answers these questions, there’s no doubt that something has changed—and I’d argue it’s for the worse.

Late last year when I interviewed George Will for Hub Dialogues I told him that we had previously met at CPAC in 2007. He replied: “that’s before it went crazy.”